Tried various things with .conf files above after getting root (/) filesystem mounted as rw, but still unable to get things working. Used retroarch directly after stopping emulationstation manually, i.e. retroarch --menu --verbose ; customretroarch definitely being read-in including the following audio settings. have confirmed that audio_device is @ 0,1 and modified the audio_driver with alsa too. retroarch --features compiled with ALSA as expected, nothing else valid to use: audio_enable = "true" audio_driver = "alsa" audio_device = "hw:0,1" audio_sync = "true" simply getting an "failed to initialize audio" error from retroarch log: [ERROR] [ALSA]: Failed to initialize... [ERROR] Failed to initialize audio driver. Will continue without audio. -- decided to take a good look at osmc config with retro and what its using: audio_driver = "alsathread" audio_resampler = "sinc" audio_device = "" audio_sync = "true" I emulated this in recalbox, and the errors in retroarch stop with the following in the retroarch startup as in osmc [INFO] ALSA: Using signed 16-bit format. [INFO] ALSA: Period size: 384 frames [INFO] ALSA: Buffer size: 1536 frames so figured I was onto something, however still no sound. really just clueless now. remember, I launch emulation in osmc (from kodi) and I start up a game... audio just works. i suppose my next question is: is there something in kodi that launches stuff correctly or emulation station, or is this simply a recalbox 'startup driver problem' that doesnt recognize the audio correctly. can anyone shed light on this for me? Peace.